Archives 2021

Roy J Plunkett – The Father of the Non-Stick Coating

A lot of the things that make our modern lives easier are things that we give little thought to. But of course, someone at some point in history has come up with all the useful things that we have, both large and small and has used inventions to improve the way that we live our lives.

One of the scientists whose name most people will not recognise – Roy J Plunkett but came up with something that makes all of our lives easier – Teflon is the brand name, and it is a type of coating that most of us will recognise as the thing that has made cooking so much easier for us, as it stops food from sticking to our pots and pans!

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It is also used in car manufacturing, construction and even on your hair straighteners! PTFE coating like this is one of the modern types of non-stick coating, and it has revolutionised many of the things that we use on a daily basis. So just who was Roy J Plunkett and how did he discover this versatile and useful product?

Roy was born in 1910 and worked during the great depression in America on a farm. He had an interest in chemistry and went to study it at College in Indiana, where he shared a room with scientist Paul Flory, who went on to become a Nobel prize winner! After he finished at Indiana the pair both also went on to study for a doctorate in his home state of Ohio.

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After he finished his education, he went on to work at DuPont, and his job when he first started working there was to research the chemicals used in modern refrigerators – chlorofluorocarbons. Earlier refrigerators had used chemicals such as ammonia, which had been poisonous to the people who made the refrigerators, so these new chemicals were something that everyone was keen to work on to improve the safety of the manufacturing process.

During one experiment, Roy J Plunkett had produced a special gas called tetrafluoroethylene gas (a bit of a mouthful, more commonly known as TFE!) and when he went to check back on it in the cylinder where it was stored and had been chlorinated, nothing came out. Upon closer inspection, it turned out that the gas had become a white powder – something that Roy took an interest in and immediately began to study.

He discovered that it was something that most things would not stick to as it had very low friction on the surface as well as being very resistant to heat – of course this suddenly changed everything, and the first non-stick coating had been created! Named Teflon, this was the first of its kind and it also revolutionised chemistry as most scientists did not realise that this was something that could happen until it did!

So next time you cook your bacon and remove it from the pan with ease or straighten your hair or dive your car – you know who to be grateful to!

Contaminated Land – What is it and What can be Done About it?

Building a house is a great way to get the home of your dreams – but when you buy a plot of land there can sometimes be a few unforeseen problems which can cause problems for your building project. Contaminated land is one of these sorts of problems and it is something that needs to be dealt with before any building work is done.

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What is Contaminated Land?

Land that has been used for some sort of industrial purpose previously may well be contaminated. It could have been a former factory, a petrol station or a military facility for example. When land has been used in this way, it often leaves contamination behind it after it has gone due to the nature of it.

What sort of Things Cause Land to be Considered Contaminated?

There are many things which can be present in the soil or groundwater which can cause the land to be classed as contaminated. Things like oils and petroleum, radioactive substances, heavy metals and certain hazardous chemicals can all cause land to be contaminated if they are found to be present.

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How do you De-Contaminate the Land?

Getting rid of the contamination is something that you will need to get a professional in to do for you such as this contaminated land remediation company Dealing with contaminated land is dangerous and is certainly not something that should be taken on by a non-professional.

Why procurement matters

Does procurement matter? It’s just businesses buying stuff, right? Well, seeing as procurement can equate to 70% of a company’s costs, yes procurement and how it is done is very important. A simple change in procurement processes can save a business a lot of money!

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There are multiple reasons why procurement matters at all levels of an organisation. Better procurement leads to improved business performance and is fundamental to achieving success. To employ the best procurement specialists, consider a procurement recruitment agency like Talent Drive.

The savings that can be made through procurement practices directly impact the company’s bottom line. To increase profitability and shareholder value, a good procurement policy is essential. This can be achieved through choosing the best suppliers and negotiating the best contracts.

The key to success is to support the organisation’s needs with the following:

  • Fully understanding the business needs
  • Purchasing services and goods at the best price
  • Purchasing these goods from the best source
  • That goods and services are procured in the right amount
  • That goods and services meet the needs of the customer
  • That goods and services are delivered at the right time

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A procurement team must also be able to identify opportunities to add value to the business. This can be achieved by:

  • Evaluating suppliers contracts to ensure they are meeting contractual obligations
  • That all purchases are run through established procurement processes
  • Suggest alternative sources that could save the company money.

As you can see, procurement has a much deeper impact than simply ‘buying’ things for an organisation.

Preparing For Your First Gun Purchase

Have you decided to purchase a self-defense weapon? Did you acquire an open or concealed carry permit? You may be excited to purchase your first weapon. However, you need to consider several things before you purchase your first weapon. These are a few tips to help you prepare to purchase your first firearm.

Identify Your Reasons

No one just decides to carry a weapon just because. You don’t just purchase the first weapon you think looks cool and start searching for ammunition for sale. You have a reason for purchasing your first firearm. You need to identify that reason clearly because it will determine the type of weapon you choose. For example, do you hope to protect your family and home, will you carry the weapon concealed, do you plan to participate in gun competitions or go skeet shooting, will you hunt or is your weapon an investment for collection purposes?

Determine Your Legal Right To Carry

Although the Second Amendment allows you to carry a weapon if you are a US citizen, some conditions do apply. For example, those who have been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor are not legally allowed to carry weapons. Other restrictions include dishonorable discharges from the military, inditement for a crime, fugitive status, mental instability and known drug abuse.

Research Your State Laws

Every state has different gun laws. Therefore, whether you have a carry permit or not, you need to learn about your state’s laws concerning owning and carrying a weapon. This is especially important if you will be crossing state lines with a weapon because what may be legal in your state may be illegal in your neighboring state.

Some states, such as Alaska and Kentucky, don’t require a permit to carry a weapon, but some may have conditions. For example, North Dakota only allows residents to carry, and their weapons must be concealed. Other states require a permit for open or concealed carry. Learn about your state and city’s gun laws, and speak with a reputable gun dealer if you need clarification.

Passing the Second Amendment milestone is exciting, but being a responsible gun owner means taking the time to prepare yourself and ensuring that you follow any applicable laws.

4 Tips for Summertime Concealed Carry

Have you ever considered how the changing seasons impact how you carry your gun? The heat of summer and the change of wardrobe that comes with it can present a challenge to some gun owners, but a little preparation can make a big difference.

1. Use a Smaller Gun

You throw on your leggings and T-shirt and head out for your run, but where to put the gun? Unless you have concealed carry clothes for summer in your closet this can be a challenge. Experienced gun owners suggest using a smaller gun in the summer. Smaller guns have a lower profile and can be more easily concealed beneath lighter summer garments. Just be sure you’ve been practicing with it since every gun handles differently.

2. Avoid Chaffing

Warmer weather means your gun is often closer to your skin than normal to accommodate summer clothing. This can lead to chaffing because let’s face it, guns don’t breathe. One way to avoid the chaff is to use an anti-chaffing cream or powder before strapping on your gun.

3. Wear Darker Colors

Maybe not the preference in summer but darker colors, especially on lighter fabrics, make it more difficult to see the outline of a concealed weapon. Darker colors also tend to be less see-through than lighter colors allowing you to keep your gun truly concealed.

4. Consider Long, Loose, and Patterned

Summer is a great excuse to wear vibrant patterns, and long, loose-fitting clothes. Not only does loose clothing allow for more air circulation it can allow you to carry with fewer fears of your gun being seen. Likewise, patterned dresses, skirts, and tops readily camouflage the outline of our weapon better than many lighter solid colors.

With a little planning and experimentation, you can enjoy all the fun and warmth of summer while still comfortably carrying concealed.

Why Are Industrial Valves So Important?

Industrial or commercial machinery requires an efficient transfer of water from one point to another. It is important to select the right type of industrial valve for the task at hand. When industrial or commercial grade industrial valves are used, they make the job easier by regulating the water flow and preventing water loss, as well as reducing the potential for damage to the equipment. As with all industrial products there are many different manufacturers and distributors of industrial valves, each with its own unique line of products. For Brass Ball Valve ranges, visit

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Lighting Ideas For An Impressive Hallway

Lighting ideas for an impressive hallway can be applied for various interior and exterior purposes, making this particular area of the house a prime choice for decorating among homeowners. A well-lit and spacious hall will surely make any homeowner feel much more comfortable and secure while walking in and out of it. In terms of design, good lighting is a combination of visual effects and practicality. The ambiance or mood of a space must be properly conveyed to its users.

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Famous Star Trek Doctors

All of the Doctors, in space or not, require Medical Indemnity from MPRS. and you can be sure that doctors from Starfleet would have protected themselves. The Starship Enterprise has had it’s fair share of doctors down through the years.  All of them have been interesting characters. Dr McCoy, as played by Deforest Kelley, from the original series sets the tone. He is a curmudgeonly, yet kind, character who is able to seemingly cure all ills. He himself remarks that he’s beginning to think he can cure a rainy day after he performs surgery on a rock monster (and duly cures it).

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This line in the character development carries on into the Next Generation. Enterprise has two doctors during this period. The first is Dr Beverly Crusher, mother of Wesley and a good friend of Captain Jean-Luc Picard (there are times you begin to wonder how friendly and also how much Wesley resembles a young Picard). The other character who came in to replace Crusher for a while was Dr Pulaski. Rumors persisted that this character was based on McCoy, and this is apparently true. The actress who played the part, Diane Muldaur, had appeared in many other episodes of Star Trek and soon became a fan favourite.

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In Star Trek Voyager there is a complete change of tack. The doctor for the ship is killed in a mission and the ship’s crew have to rely on the emergency medical hologram. This was played  with great application by Robert Picardo who was so good, he even got a brief appearance in the Star Trek First Contact motion picture.  Again he brings much charm to the role.